By Robert A. Stebbins
For fifteen years, Robert Stebbins has performed vast examine on amateurs and execs in theatre, track, archaeology, astronomy, baseball, soccer, magic and stand-up comedy. His guides provide the topic of significant rest in-depth scholarly recognition. this article brings jointly the findings of this examine venture to supply a theoretical framework that unearths the commonalities throughout those 8 fields. all through this undertaking Stebbins has equipped at the paintings of Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss and their idea of "grounded theory". First, Stebbins generally saw the regimen actions of amateurs and pros in every one box studied. Then, as he turned extra acquainted with the life-styles of the members, he carried out long, unstructured, face-to-face interviews with, regularly, 30 novice or expert respondents. each one box demanded certain equipment of remark, research, interviewing, probing and reporting. up to attainable, notwithstanding, Stebbins requested related questions of all respondents in all fields on the way to allow generalizations throughout those assorted fields. the outcome used to be a "substantive grounded conception" of every box studied. Stebbins has constructed a "formal grounded idea" of amateurs and pros in response to the examine collected in all 8 noticeable fields. through transcending various contexts, he argues, one could achieve a extra enduring appreciation of the weather that impact peoples' stories in paintings and spare time activities. A evaluation of the findings throughout this wide selection of actions, together with his findings and concepts on hobbyists and occupation volunteers, enabled Stebbins to derive larger definitions of the most suggestions of the venture, reminiscent of "amateur", "the public", and "serious rest" -- in addition to "professional", the place he distinguishes among client-centred and public-centred pros who, whereas sharing a number of ideal-typical attributes, range as to the ability and keep an eye on they've got over their paintings in a democratic society. He offers inductive conclusions approximately careers and the prices and rewards within the 8 amateur-professional fields thought of. He examines the exterior global of amateurs and execs within the mild of such concerns as family members ties, kin between amateurs and pros and between amateurs and their employers, public photos, critics and newshounds, group contributions, and the query of marginality for amateurs who're stuck among the paintings global of the pro and the informal relaxation international of the vast majority of the inhabitants. He concludes with an exploration of the long run position of significant relaxation when it comes to predictions of larger unemployment and elevated relaxation time and durability.
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Additional resources for Amateurs, Professionals, and Serious Leisure
The works referred to present informative ethnographic, and sometimes social psychological and sociological data as well, on an activity. Bryan (1979) offers much briefer but, nonetheless, scientifically useful treatments of canoeing and backpacking. The folk artist is a type of activity participant as well. Since the PAP system is based on a certain degree of social interaction among members of the three groups, non-professional practitioners who, as a group, have little or no interchange with professionals or amateurs are logically excluded from the category of modern amateur.
Nonetheless, those who make their living on the entertainment stage share many common experiences, such as unsympathetic or unscrupulous agents and nightclub managers, hostile or indifferent audiences, inadequate performing conditions, unconventional (chiefly nocturnal) work hours, high public visibility, similar after-hours leisure practices, and an itinerant lifestyle. First and foremost, entertainers share the difficult goal of amusing audiences in ways that are sufficiently appealing to lead to a career in their art, whether amateur or professional.
Nonetheless, as noted at the beginning of this section, there is one problem with the attribution approach: its tendency to be qualitative and theoretical. Indeed, the attributes are generally unmeasurable quantitatively. They are, moreover, theoretical, since each is really a hypothetical proposition about the professions. So we must then ask ourselves whether professions actually have these attributes. How 25 Professionals do their manifestations vary from one profession to another? Both Greenwood and Roth seem to agree that some, or all, of these attributes are found in other categories of occupations as well: for example, in management and the skilled trades.
Amateurs, Professionals, and Serious Leisure by Robert A. Stebbins