By means of interpreting and evaluating agricultural regulations in India, Indonesia, China, and Vietnam, this examine is helping fill an important hole in improvement study. The record presents an evaluate of conceptual and dimension concerns relating to the results of alternate and domestic-support rules and coverage reforms at the incentives of agricultural manufacturers and provides empirical estimates of the measure of defense or disprotection within the 4 nations. From India's countercyclical coverage results and Indonesia's excessive degrees of agricultural safeguard, to the rage towards modest aid of agriculture in China and Vietnam, the report's effects show either how alterations in agricultural coverage can increase farmers' incentives as fiscal development happens and the way tricky it truly is to reform entrenched coverage interventions. via such findings, the file contributes to coverage discussions on developing propoor guidelines on the topic of agricultural help and exchange, either on the household point and in foreign negotiations.
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Extra info for Agricultural Producer Support Estimates for Developing Countries: Measurement Issues and Evidence from India, Indonesia, China, and Vietnam
6). Other major exports include cocoa beans, coffee and tea, and coconut oil. Among agricultural imports, Indonesia’s domestic textile and wheat milling industries have made cotton and wheat first and second in value. 7). China China has only 9 percent of the world’s arable cropland but 20 percent of the world’s population. 5 Production of major agricultural commodities in Indonesia, 2003 Rank in Indonesia production 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rank in world production Product Production (metric tons) 3 11 3 1 8 2 6 3 2 4 Rice, paddy Sugarcane Cassava Coconuts Maize Palm oil Bananas Fruit, tropical, fresh nes a Palm kernels Sweet potatoes 52,078,832 24,500,000 18,473,960 15,630,000 10,910,104 10,200,000 4,311,959 2,832,366 2,186,777 1,997,787 Source: FAO (2006).
Traditional crops and livestock products remain dominant in Indian agriculture, but the output mix is changing rapidly. The composition of the production mix has changed in favor of high-value commodities (Joshi and Gulati 2003). During the 1990s highvalue agriculture—including fruits and vegetables, dairy products, poultry, eggs, and meat, as well as fishery products—grew by more than double the rate registered by the cereal sector. 1). Thus Indian agriculture is undergoing a significant structural transformation from cereal-led to high-value product–led growth, which is being driven by increased domestic and export demand for noncereal foods and by improved supply capacity for high-value products.
Thus the quality of Vietnamese coffee varies. But the country’s yield of nearly 1,300 kilograms of coffee per hectare is twice the world average. Apart from coffee, other important industrial and perennial crops are rubber, sugarcane, groundnut, soybean, tea, and pepper. At the beginning of the 1980s, Vietnam went from being an importer to a net exporter of agricultural products. Its agricultural import value since 1990 is only about half the value of its exports in agriculture. 4 billion in 1999, then declined in 2000– 02 before reaching record levels in 2003 and 2004.
Agricultural Producer Support Estimates for Developing Countries: Measurement Issues and Evidence from India, Indonesia, China, and Vietnam by IFPRI