By T.J. Mason, A. Tiehm
Ultrasound in Environmental defense specializes in one of many extra major advancements within the topic - environmental remediation - delivering an summary on either the basics and functions of ultrasound in environmental security, incorporating fresh study and state of the art info at the clinical foundation, modes of use, and engineering advancements. A wide spectrum of themes are lined: reactor layout, sonochemical pollutant degradation, built-in unltrasonic/ organic remedy, ultrasound in disinfection, leaching by way of ultrasound, and ultrasonically improved removing of suspended solids. Ultrasound is generated and utilized at frequencies from 20 kHz to numerous MHz. The physio-chemical parameters of the sonicated media, reactor layout, utilized depth, and length of sonication, dramatically impression the consequences that may be completed. it truly is was hoping that this compilation will give a contribution to a greater figuring out and extra improvement of sonochemistry as a fresh know-how not just for environmental remediation but additionally extra more often than not. the root of this compilation was once shaped in the course of a workshop that used to be held on the Technical collage of Hamburg-Harburg, Germany, in March 1999. This used to be the 1st workshop to be dedicated to 'Ultrasound in Environmental Engineering' and taken jointly event and information from a large spectrum of disciplines together with chemistry, biology, engineering, gear production, and plant layout.
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Extra resources for Advances in Sonochemistry: Ultrasound in Environmental Protection
The biodegradability increased if the TOC was reduced by treatment with ultrasound±H2O2 but decreased if the TOC was reduced by ultrasound alone. The optimum conditions determined for the pre-treatment of PTA wastewater using the ultrasound±H2O2 process followed by biological treatment was found to be pH 3 and 200 mg/l H2O2. 48 ANDREAS TIEHM 5. 1 Fragmentation of Polymers A general relationship exists between the average molecular weight of polymers and their amenability to biodegradation: the shorter the chains, the higher the likelihood of biodegradation.
The results demonstrate that biodegradation processes limited by slow mass transfer can be signi®cantly improved by ultrasound. This ®nding is consistent with previous biochemical studies with enzymes. 6 MHz was shown to increase the activity of immobilised amylases . The enzymes -amylase and glucoamylase were bound to porous polystyrene Combination of Ultrasonic and Biological Pollutant Degradation 39 Figure 8. Effect of sonication on the formation of CO2 during biodegradation of solid naphthalene (frequency: 3217 kHz; power: 50 W).
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons . Also in wastewater treatment, sorption of hydrophobic pollutants to biomass has been shown to aect the biodegradation rate . The bio-availability of hydrophobic pollutants can be improved by measures accelerating mass transfer into the aqueous phase. An enhanced mass transfer can be achieved by, for example, a high stirring rate  or addition of surfactants [64,67,68]. Enhanced mass transfer can also be achieved by adding polar substituents to the hydrophobic pollutants, thus modifying the chemical structure and increasing their water-solubility.
Advances in Sonochemistry: Ultrasound in Environmental Protection by T.J. Mason, A. Tiehm