By David E. Malach
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Extra info for Advances in Mechanical Engineering Research; Volume 2
5. M. M. Leijten, Evaluation of perpendicular to the grain failure of beams, caused by concentrated loads of joints. CIB-W18A/33-7-7, meeting 33, Delft, The Netherlands, August 2000. M. van der Put, Tension perpendicular to the grain at notches and joints. CIBW18A-23-10-1, meeting 23, Lisbon, Portugal, Sept. 1990 DWSF Technical note M. Ballerini: A set of tests on beams loaded perpendicular to the grain by dowel type of joints. CIB-W18/32-7-2. Graz. Austria.    CONCLUSION Because the failure criterion for ―clear‖ wood and for macro-crack extension is the same, fracture mechanics of wood and comparable materials is determined by smallcrack propagation towards the macro-crack tip.
Eng. 113, No. 12 pp. 2475-2487. 6. 1. Introduction The theory of total fracture energy, discussed in Section 5, was initially developed to obtain simple general design rules for beams with square end-notches and edge joints, loaded Fracture Mechanics of Wood and Wood-like Reinforced Polymers 35 perpendicular to the grain design rules of square notches and joints for the Dutch Building Code and later, as modification of the method of , published in  with the extensions for high beams. Horizontal splitting in short, high beams, loaded close to the support, causes no failure because the remaining beam isstrong enough to carry the load and vertical transverse crack propagation is necessary for total failure.
2. 1, loaded by a constant load V. 2) and the work done by the force V is: 2ΔW = V∙δ, which is twice the increase of the strain energy (ΔW = V∙δ/2) of the beam and therefore the amount ΔW is used to increase the strain energy and the other equal amount of ΔW is used as fracture energy. Because δ is the difference of the cracked and "un-cracked" state, only the deformation of the cracked part βh minus the deformation of that same part βh in the un-cracked state, need to be Fracture Mechanics of Wood and Wood-like Reinforced Polymers 41 calculated, because the deformation of all other parts of the beam by load V are the same in cracked and un-cracked state.
Advances in Mechanical Engineering Research; Volume 2 by David E. Malach