By Pira International Ltd
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Extra resources for Advances in Bioethanol
All lignin and part of the hemicellulose is removed, and the reactivity of cellulose for later hydrolysis is sufficiently increased. Reactor costs are lower than those for acid technologies. However, the use of these more expensive salts in high concentrations raises environmental concerns and may lead to prohibitive recycling, waste-water treatment and residual handling costs. Alkalinebased methods are generally more effective at solubilising a greater fraction of lignin while leaving behind much of the hemicellulose in an insoluble, polymeric form (US DOE, 2003).
The separation of hydrolysis and fermentation offers various processing advantages and opportunities. It enables enzymes to operate at higher temperatures for increased performance, and fermentation organisms to operate at moderate temperatures, optimising the utilisation of sugars. JYUVSFPG IFYPTF QFOUPTFTVHBST 'FSNFOUBUJPO Source: Based on Chandel (2007) The most important process improvement made for the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass is the introduction of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), which has been improved to include the co-fermentation of multiple sugar substrates.
Glucose is easily fermented into ethanol, but another fermentation process is required for xylose – for example using special micro-organisms. The second-generation technology holds great advantages for the fermentation of biomass in the form of agricultural waste materials. The first-generation technology is based on much more costly raw material and there are some ethical questions. This is not an issue with the second-generation technology – instead there are some challenges such as efficient pre-treatment and fermentation technologies together with environmentally friendly process technology (for example the reuse of the process water).
Advances in Bioethanol by Pira International Ltd