By Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo
Among 1940 and 1945, millions of African american citizens migrated from the South to the East Bay zone of northern California looking for the social and financial mobility that used to be linked to the region's increasing safeguard and its attractiveness for better racial tolerance. Drawing on fifty oral interviews with migrants in addition to on archival and different written documents, Abiding braveness examines the reviews of the African American ladies who migrated west and equipped groups there.Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo vividly indicates how ladies made the transition from southern household and box paintings to jobs in an business, wartime economic climate. whilst, they have been suffering to maintain their households jointly, setting up new families, and growing community-sustaining networks and associations. whereas white girls shouldered the double burden of salary hard work and housekeeping, black ladies confronted even larger demanding situations: discovering homes and colleges, finding church buildings and clinical prone, and contending with racism. by way of targeting girls, Lemke-Santangelo presents new views on the place and the way social swap happens and the way neighborhood is demonstrated and maintained.
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Extra resources for Abiding courage: African American migrant women and the East Bay community
Male migrants, when they appear in the following pages, fill supporting roles as spouses, siblings, children, and parents, much as women have in previous migration studies. This work, then, is intended as a corrective to scholarship that privileges or universalizes male experience. However, it is a playful corrective rather than a vindictive one. Although the work emphasizes women's experience, it in no way suggests that men were insignificant participants in the migration and community-building process or that men and women had vastly different expectations and experiences.
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Compared with the other four states, Mississippi had the lowest rate of black farm ownership, the highest rate of farm tenancy, and the lowest average value of black-owned farms. 30 Black farm ownership was kept at a minimum through declining soil fertility, high interest rates, falling cotton prices, boll weevil infestation, and white hostility. Whites either refused to sell land to black farmers or sold them land that was no longer productive. Blacks who managed to acquire farms frequently became the target of white violence.
Abiding courage: African American migrant women and the East Bay community by Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo