By Syma A. Ebbin, Alf H. Hoel, Are Sydnes
This is often the 1st systematic overview of the overseas 200-mile particular financial quarter. up to now, a hundred forty five states have ratified the legislations of the ocean conference, and such a lot have verified EEZs. This quantity specializes in the explicit nature of the EEZ and the development and evolution of associations stemming from its advent, particularly interpreting advancements at neighborhood, nationwide and foreign degrees.
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Additional resources for A Sea Change: The Exclusive Economic Zone and Governance Institutions for Living Marine Resources
15 Fisheries management in the European Union is basically a community matter. Therefore, the opposite party in this arrangement is the European Commission, not the EU member states. The seven stocks are from different species, among them North Sea herring and North Sea cod. 38 ALF HÅKON HOEL the Norwegian EZ in the North. The EU also has a quota for Arctic cod in the Svalbard Fisheries Conservation Zone. In the north, the difficulties encountered in attempts to resolve a boundary dispute between Norway and the Soviet Union in the Barents Sea (Kvalvik, 2004) have not prevented the development of a joint Norway-Soviet Union fisheries regime from 1975 onwards.
Following their accession to the 1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement and modifications to ICES advice, Norway and Russia has moved towards a precautionary approach in the work in the Joint Fisheries Commission (see section 3 below). 18 In addition to the arrangements with Russia and the EU, there are several other operative bilateral arrangements between Norway and Iceland, Greenland, the Faroese Islands and Poland. Beyond the waters under Norway’s jurisdiction there are two areas of high seas: the so-called ‘Loophole’ in the Barents Sea, and another area in the Norwegian Sea.
Further, the reference to maximum sustained yield (MSY) in Paragraph 3 would by itself suggest that only biological criteria would need to be employed in determining conservation and management measures, but this is qualified by reference to the various economic and environmental factors referred to in the article. Also the reference to ‘levels which can produce the maximum sustainable yield’ in Article 6l(2) suggests that the MSY is not itself a mandatory objective. This also relates to the notion of optimum utilization as set out in Article 62.
A Sea Change: The Exclusive Economic Zone and Governance Institutions for Living Marine Resources by Syma A. Ebbin, Alf H. Hoel, Are Sydnes