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By A. Bonnick, D. Newbold

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G. 720=4 ¼ 180 . Therefore the firing interval for a fourcylinder in-line engine will be 180 and that for a six-cylinder in-line engine will be 720=6 ¼ 120 . The firing order is determined by two things. The position of the cylinders and the cranks on the crankshaft (this determines the possible firing orders). The arrangement of the cams on the camshaft (this must be in accordance with one of the possible firing orders). g. numbers 1 and 4 form one pair and 2 and 3 form the other pair. This means that when number 1 is moving down, on its power stroke, number 4 will also be moving down, but on its induction stroke.

Cast iron or aluminium. The cylinder head is illustrated in Fig. 27. Cylinder head tightening sequence To avoid distorting either the cylinder head or the head gasket the tightening sequence (order) must be followed. The torque settings must also be correct to prevent over-stretching of Engines and lubrication Fig. 27 Cylinder head – exploded view 35 36 A practical approach to motor vehicle engineering and maintenance the bolts and studs or stripping of the threads. The manufacture’s manual must always be referred to and the procedure followed; this will ensure that the above problems are not encountered when reassembling the cylinder head to the engine.

Here the metal itself can touch the surface of the Fig. 42 Points of fluid friction Engines and lubrication Fig. 43 Mixed friction occurs in this ball and roller bearing second metal for a short time but this is not long enough to produce much heat; therefore wear is limited. This type of friction takes place in ball and roller bearings (Fig. 43). The more mixed friction moves towards boundary friction the more heat is produced, this causes more wear and eventually complete seizure. Learning tasks 1.

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A Practical Approach to Motor Vehicle Engineering and Maint. by A. Bonnick, D. Newbold


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