By Mary N. Arai (auth.)
Scyphozoa have attracted the eye of many sorts of individuals. Naturalists watch their swish locomotion. Fishermen could dread the swarms which may hinder fishing or consume larval fish. Bathers retreat from the water in the event that they are stung. humans from a few Asiatic international locations consume the medusae. Comparative physiologists research them as very likely easy types for the functioning of varied structures. This ebook integrates information from these and different investigations right into a practical biology of scyphozoa. it is going to emphasize the wide variety of adaptive responses attainable in those morphologically quite basic animals. The e-book will pay attention to the study of the final 35 years, in part simply because there was a swift growth of data in the course of that interval, and in part simply because a lot of the former paintings used to be summarized by way of books released among 1961 and 1970. Bibliographies of papers on scyphozoa have been integrated in Mayer (1910) and Kramp (1961). Taxonomic diagnoses also are integrated in these monographs, in addition to in a monograph at the scyphomedusae of the USSR released through Naumov (Naumov, 1961). such a lot impor tantly, a genenttion of scyphozoan employees has used as its 'bible' the monograph through F.S.Russell (1970) The Medusae of the British Isles. inspite of its restrictive identify, his e-book studies lots of the details at the biology of scyphozoa as much as that date.
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Additional info for A Functional Biology of Scyphozoa
In the Stauromedusae, pigment spots are present on the oral surfaces of polyps of the genus Stylocoronella (see Salvini-Plawen, 1966, 1987). No lenses have been observed in these orders. A few coronate species possess more complex ocelli. Lenses have been observed in Nausithoe punctata (see Hertwig and Hertwig, 1878). 7). However P. ransom' does not possess ocelli (Russell, 1956). These coronate ocelli have not been investigated further. Although pigmented cells are often associated with photoreception, clear proof of photoreception requires electrical recording of cellular responses to light.
That has not yet been demonstrated by comparison of contracted and relaxed tissue. Classically striated muscle has so far only been identified in swimming muscle. , Nausithoe punctata and Aurelia aurita as well as the tentacular and peri-rhopalial muscles of Chrysaora quinquecirrha and Cyanea capillata medusae, the myofibrils may appear striated or smooth. 5 times contracted length. MK = thick myofilaments; MN = thin myofilaments; Pa = extra thick filaments. Possible bridges between thin and thick filaments are visible at the unlabelled arrow.
It is less clear what other nervous elements may be present to control other functions. The marginal centres, motor nerve net and diffuse nerve net will each be discussed in more detail in subsequent sections. 2). The term marginal centre refers to an endogenous pacemaker with input into the MNN, shown by cutting experiments to lie in the vicinity of the base of the rhopalium. 3) is a single functional unit, consisting of a network of relatively large fusiform 36 Locomotion bipolar neurons which extends in the subumbrellar ectoderm from the marginal centres over the swimming muscle.
A Functional Biology of Scyphozoa by Mary N. Arai (auth.)